An Ecosystem is a community of living creatures (plants, animals (including humans), and microorganisms) in a certain region. Each member of the ecosystem interacts with each other. The non- living parts of the ecosystem, such as water, climate, air, and geographic features.

Structure Of EcosystemAbiotic components

There are 2 main components in each ecosystem:

Abiotic components-

The nonliving factors will be in abiotic components, such as Climatic Factors that include rain, temperature, light, wind, humidity, etc. and Edaphic Factors including soil, pH, topography minerals, etc.

Biotic components-

The living organisms will be in biotic components, such as plants, animals, and micro-organisms (Bacteria and Fungi). 




  1. Freshwater Ecosystems- Pond ecosystem, River ecosystem.
  2. Terrestrial Ecosystems-  Rain forest, Tundra, Desert, Savannas, Forests, Grasslands.
  3. Ocean Ecosystems- Shallow Water, Deep Water, Warm Water.


The functional components are:

  • Inorganic constituents such as air, water, and mineral salts
  • Organisms such as plants, animals, and microbes)
  • The energy which other components receive from outside (the sun).


Ecosystems are a group of organisms and non-living matter that interact together. As ecosystems are connected and each part of the ecosystem is important. Ecosystems can cause many problems by damaged or imbalanced.

these are some Importance of ecosystem- Components, Interaction between Components, Size of Ecosystem, Biomes, Disturbances in Ecosystem, Impact of Pollution.